Vitiligo Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

What is Vitiligo

What is Vitiligo?

Vitiligo is an autoimmune disorder because vitiligo is a generalized abnormality of your immune system that result in white spots on in the body. There are currently no acceptable permanent means to halt this process. When the term treating vitiligo, it means eliminating the white spots weather root cause is addressed or not.

Melanocyte the special skin cells in the human skin that produce the pigmenting substance melanin. Melanin is responsible for the skin coloration.

In Vitiligo white patches of skin appear on different parts of the body especially on the exposed parts of the body like face, hand, foot, leg, eyelids, and head, etc.

Types of Vitiligo

Vitiligo is categorized in the following Vitiligo Types:

A. Generalized Vitiligo:

  1. Universal Vitiligo
  2. Acrofacial vitiligo
  3. Vulgaris Vitiligo,

B. Localized Vitiligo:

  1. Focal Pattern Vitiligo
  2. Segmental Pattern Vitiligo

Universal Vitiligo

Universal vitiligo normally covers all body except some small part which contains the original skin color or the pigmented skin. So it is the complete or nearly complete loss of skin pigment and hence also called Vitiligo totalis. Permanent medical bleaching is the only option for normal skin.

Acrofacial Vitiligo

Acrofacial vitiligo affects the exposed parts of the body such as head, face, feet, and hand. Therefore it also causes great emotional distress in the patients due to their physical appearance.

Acrofacial vitiligo is a very common distribution of the disease in this type of vitiligo the white spots are restricted to parts away from the center of the body.

Affecting distal extremities and face. Some patches on the face and some on other body parts, but not on all over the body.

Vitiligo Vulgaris

Vitiligo Vulgaris is very difficult to cure. Normally due to widespread it may take a long period for treatment. Also surgery is not only treatment for the patients of Vitiligo Vulgaris.

It is small patches of vitiligo that are spread in a pattern like a shower admixed with normal skin in the segmental or acrofacial pattern. This is the most common type with bilaterally symmetrical lesions. Predominantly distributed over the face, neck, torso, fingers, toes, palms, soles, and facial orifices.

Focal Vitiligo

One or more macules in one area but not clearly in an asymmetric distribution. In general terms Focal Vitiligo is situated in a single area. If the patient has a single patch on the face, hand, or leg with no other occurrences of disease on other body parts.

Focal vitiligo if not active is generally more suited for localized treatments. The first treatment would be a topical medicine. If medicine does not work or is unacceptable due to other reasons tattooing and surgery may be considered.

Segmental Vitiligo

It is often called Lip Tip vitiligo because it is mostly limited to lips, distal parts of the fingers and toes. It is more difficult to treat segmental vitiligo.

Segmental vitiligo has a quasi-dermatomal pattern with one or more spots. These patches are not in regular shape and distributed asymmetrically and have a clear border.
One or more patches are distributed within the same segment of the body.

What are the Symptoms of Vitiligo?

Vitiligo is manifested by the appearance of white patches of irregular shape on the body. The loss of pigment is usually found first in the following areas:

  • Arms
  • Lip
  • Hands
  • Feet
  • Face

Other areas where white patches due to vitiligo may occur include:

  • Groin
  • Armpits
  • Nostrils
  • The navel
  • The genitals
  • Eyes